Doctor of Leadership in Global Perspectives: Crafting Ministry in an Interconnected World


Written by: on March 19, 2023


“Leadership: Theory and Practice” by Peter G. Northouse is a seminal work in the field of leadership studies. The book provides a comprehensive overview of various leadership theories and practices, offering readers an in-depth understanding of the complexities involved in effective leadership. My review aims to evaluate the book’s strengths and weaknesses and highlight its key contributions to the field of leadership research.


Theoretical breadth and depth:
One of the book’s most significant strengths is its coverage of various leadership theories. Northouse presents an exhaustive list of leadership theories, ranging from the classic approaches such as Trait Theory and Style Theory to more contemporary ones like Servant Leadership and Authentic Leadership. By doing so, the author enables us to grasp the evolution of leadership thought and appreciate the diverse perspectives that contribute to the field.

Servant Leadership and Authentic Leadership go hand in hand. You must be a trustworthy leader to operate as a Servant or Authentic Leader. Authors James Kouzes and Barry Posner state, “If you don’t believe in the messenger, you won’t believe the message.[1]” For people to believe in you, it is becoming increasingly clear that you need to operate out of these two principles of leadership.

Practical application:
Northouse’s book stands out for its ability to seamlessly integrate theory and practice. Each chapter presents real-life examples and case studies that help readers understand how the theories can be applied in different situations. This balance between theory and practice makes the book highly accessible and valuable to both academics and practitioners.

Pedagogical features:
The book is designed for both individual study and group discussions, with numerous pedagogical features such as learning objectives, chapter summaries, reflection questions, and exercises. These elements make the book highly engaging and interactive, encouraging readers to think critically about the material and fostering deeper understanding.

Research-based approach:
Northouse’s work is grounded in empirical research, which adds credibility to the theories and concepts discussed. The author meticulously cites the original sources, allowing readers to further explore the subject matter and verify the accuracy of the information presented.


Single Western Lens
Though the author speaks on globalization, “Globalization has created a need to understand how cultural differences affect leadership performance[2]” and highlights the importance of recognizing and adapting to cultural diversity in today’s interconnected world. It lacks coverage of non-Western perspectives. It does cover an extensive array of leadership theories, it primarily focuses on Western perspectives. This may limit the book’s applicability to non-Western contexts and exclude valuable insights from different cultural backgrounds. Expanding the scope to include non-Western leadership theories could strengthen the book’s global appeal and relevance.

Non-Western leadership theories emphasize the cultural context in which leadership takes place and provide insights into how leaders from different parts of the world approach their roles. Here are some notable non-Western leadership theories:

  1. Confucian Leadership:[3] Originating from East Asia, particularly China, Confucian leadership is grounded in the philosophical teachings of Confucius. This leadership style emphasizes harmony, relationships, and ethical behavior. Confucian leaders focus on maintaining social order, nurturing personal and professional relationships, and acting with integrity and moral character.
  2. Paternalistic Leadership:[4] Paternalistic leadership is a prevalent style in various non-Western cultures, including Asia, Latin America, and Africa. This leadership approach involves leaders acting as a parent figure to their subordinates, providing guidance, protection, and care. In return, they expect loyalty, respect, and obedience. Paternalistic leaders often balance their authoritarian and benevolent aspects, making decisions based on the best interests of their followers while maintaining control and authority.
  3. Ubuntu Leadership:[5] Originating from African cultures, particularly South Africa, Ubuntu leadership is rooted in the philosophy of Ubuntu, which means “I am because we are.” This leadership style emphasizes the interconnectedness and interdependence of people. Ubuntu leaders promote compassion, empathy, collaboration, and community-building, valuing the collective well-being over individual achievements. “
  4. Wasta Leadership:[6] Wasta is an Arabic term that refers to the influence and social connections one possesses. In the Middle East and North African (MENA) region, wasta leadership is based on the ability to use personal networks and connections to facilitate transactions, resolve conflicts, and achieve goals. This leadership style values the ability to create and maintain social connections, leveraging them to benefit the organization and its members.
  5. Indigenous Leadership:[7] Indigenous leadership theories encompass a wide range of leadership styles and practices rooted in the cultural traditions and values of Indigenous peoples from different parts of the world. These leadership approaches often emphasize deep connections with the land, community, and spirituality. Indigenous leaders prioritize collective well-being, stewardship of natural resources, and the preservation of cultural heritage.

While these non-Western leadership theories provide valuable insights into leadership practices in various cultural contexts, it is essential to avoid overgeneralizing or stereotyping. Leaders within each cultural context may exhibit different leadership styles and approaches, and effective leadership often involves adapting to the specific needs and expectations of diverse followers.


As students in Doctor of Leadership and Global Perspectives, we must always consider our leadership from a more global perspective. Organizations and ministries increasingly operate across borders, and they encounter a myriad of cultural backgrounds, values, and norms. To be effective in this context, we must navigate these differences and foster collaboration and understanding among the teams and organizations we lead.

“Leadership: Theory and Practice” by Peter G. Northouse is a comprehensive and valuable resource for individuals seeking to understand the complex nature of leadership. The book’s strengths, including its theoretical breadth and depth, practical application, pedagogical features, and research-based approach, make it an essential reference for leadership scholars and practitioners alike. However, to enhance its global relevance and stay up-to-date with the latest trends, future editions could benefit from incorporating non-Western perspectives and emerging leadership trends.


[1] Kouzes, J., & Posner, B. (1996). Seven Lessons for Leading the Voyage to the Future. In The leader of the future: New visions, strategies, and practices for the new era (p. 103). essay, Jossey-Bass.

[2] Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition (Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 2016), 431

[3] “Chinese Leadership” by Barbara Wang and Harold Chee is helpful in exploring this topic.

[4] “Leadership Across Cultures: A Comparative Study of Paternalistic Leadership in East Asian and Western Contexts” by Yi Wang is helpful in exploring this topic

[5]Ubuntu: An African Philosophy of Management and Leadership for the 21st Century” by George N. Njenga is helpful in exploring this topic.

[6]While there may not be books specifically dedicated to “Wasta Leadership,” there are books and resources that discuss the concept of “wasta” and its impact on leadership, management, and business practices in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. Here is a book that touches upon the influence of wasta in these contexts “Understanding the Arab Culture: A Practical Cross-Cultural Guide to Working in the Arab World” by Jehad Al-Omari

[7] “As We Have Always Done: Indigenous Freedom through Radical Resurgence” by Leanne Betasamosake Simpson

About the Author


Daron George

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10 responses to “Northouse”

  1. mm Becca Hald says:

    Wow Daron! I love how you offered a critique of the book’s lack of non-Western models and then provided a list of examples. What a great resource. Do you have any recommendations for how to blend these different styles of leadership?

    • mm Daron George says:


      Thank you! I’ve had a head start with this book. It was a main book for my undergrad back in the day so I have had a lot of time to sit with this one.

      I have not yet figured out how to merge them but it is a project that is on my list of things to do. 🙂

  2. Michael O'Neill says:

    Super informative, my friend. Does your current ministry require diverse leadership or decisions made from a global perspective? Thanks.

    • mm Daron George says:


      That is a great question. My recent transition very much requires both diverse leadership and decisions made from a global perspective, but this is a recent development in my life so it is at the forefront of my mind.

  3. Kristy Newport says:

    Non Western Leadership theories…
    What a fantastic list, including description of each.
    Thank you for bringing these to our attention. It looks like you could write a book similar to Northouse but discussing these various theories. I would like to learn more. Ilike Becca and Michaels questions. How do you blend these theories and apply them?
    Great blog, Deron!

  4. Tonette Kellett says:


    What a fabulous list of non-western leadership theories. You bring so much to the table every week in your posts. They are over the top. You are an exemplary leader.

  5. mm Chad McSwain says:

    Well, you crushed this. What a fantastic critique of the book in light of our program. What Western or Non-Western leadership style do you operate in the most or most drawn too?
    Thank you for bringing this to our attention.

  6. Daron – I’ve bookmarked this post and will return to it again and again. Your insight into non-western leadership theories is invaluable. Thank you so much!

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