DMin, Leadership and Global Perspectives: Crafting Ministry in an Interconnected World


Written by: on June 7, 2017

You hypocrite, first take the plank out of your own eye, and then you will see clearly to remove the speck from your brother’s eye.  Matthew 7:5 (NIV)


In 1948, Apartheid was for the people with black skins, white Afrikaans, Coloured, and Indians. It, for the most part, was to destroy equality of selected race and groups by strengthening the power of the pure whites, decrease or eradicate the labor power of the blacks, prevent the property growth of the blacks, banned interracial relationships, and abolish the voting roll. The National Party (NP) rose to prevent the United Party (UP) from increasing the equality of the Blacks, Coloureds, and Indians.



Walsh shared the history of the political parties reign before 1948 to assist in the reader’s understanding of how Apartheid birthed. He spoke of the Black Experience identifying the various African organizations: African National Congress (ANC), formerly South Africa Native National Congress founded in 1912 whose focus was “rooted in the educated, Christian class, a product of the mission schools who were the sole providers of education for Africans.” (37) Nelson Mandela was a part of this organization. Walsh discussed that the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) by “shaping the future of ANC’s strategies as the desired goal for South Africa.” (42) This organization, by 1949, was the “brains-trust and power-station of the spirit of African nationalism.” (47)  Before apartheid, there was already African organizations protesting and striking (miner and hunger) against segregation and racialism. They had little effect.

Many changes of events encouraged to change the platform of the NP to revisit its views of white control. People began to join their efforts through boycotts and demonstrations while experiencing police brutality and death. Some organization leaders, including Mandela, were imprisoned for their political position.



Imagine, one of the missiles that affected the NP’s view of their policies were the sanctions from countries who themselves promoted racialism. They recognized after years of being a consumer supporter of South Africa’s commodities that apartheid did not support human rights, i.e. America. It is believed that the “Civil Rights Movement encouraged the Anti-Apartheid Movement. There are similarities in both movements toward freedom.” [1] Greeson states that the “anti-apartheid movement was successful because of the  spiritual and material of the civil rights movement; the two shared a common ideology of equal rights for all human beings, regardless of race; and  the movements shared the same leadership.” [2]  Martin Luther King, Jr. and Nelson Mandela shared similar experiences and challenges by being thrown in jail, police brutality, white supporters, and were charismatic speakers.

1989, began the fall of Apartheid. The Conservative Party (CP) was replaced by the Progressive Federal Party in the fight to make an effective change in Apartheid through filtrating the parliament. FW de Klerk was elected and denounced the laws of apartheid. In this same year: the Tiananmen Square uprising in China, the capitulation of the Soviet Union I Baltic States, the crumbling of the ‘Iron Curtain,’ the retreat of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, and the collapse of the Belin Wall.

Walsh focused on the history of racialism in South Africa and how it instilled Apartheid. He wanted to give insight into the years of racial tribulation which has led to Apartheid and that the rise of the people challenging the laws and policies of Apartheid, along with the support of other countries to dissolve Apartheid resulted in its fall. He included the impact of Mandela and Desmond Tutu in the book, but he remained true to his purpose to present the history of the unrest in South Africa.

As I read through this book, it stirred up memories of my experiences and others through the Jim Crow and Civil rights Movement years. I believe our current tension in America reveals  “Racism was silenced because of the Civil Rights and Anti-Apartheid Movements but the rise of the American Republican Party has removed its tonsils and it speaks again. What are your thoughts?


[1] Enwezor, Okwui, Rise and Fall of Apartheid: Photography and the Bureaucracy of Everyday Life, 2013, pg. 2, accessed June 6, 2017, docs/ apartheid.essay.

[2] Greeson, Matthew, Fighting for Equality: The Anti-Apartheid Movement and the Legacy of Civil Rights, Colgate Academic Review, Vol 5, Spring 2009, accessed June 6, 2017,

About the Author

Lynda Gittens


  1. Jim Sabella says:

    Thanks for your post Lynda. It seems like no matter where racism exists, no matter what language is used to express it, its purveyors use the same hateful rhetoric and get the same horrific result. I appreciate your analysis on the need for everyone to not only acknowledge that racism exists around the world but the need to do something about it. Thank you Lynda.

  2. mm Jennifer Dean-Hill says:

    Yes Lynda! I also had flashbacks of America’s history and the oppression of segregation in our country. Good post and I appreciate your perspective.

    Yes, it does appear racism and discrimination has been resurrected in our country, although I wouldn’t exactly subscribe it to the Republican party. With a history like ours’, I think it will take generations to die out IF it is our desire as a nation. And it doesn’t take much to ignite the spark from the dying embers of our sordid past. All the more we need to come together as a church and promote unity and respect among each other regardless of gender, class, or ethnicity.

    • Lynda Gittens says:


      I agree that we all have our steps in racism and many are home grown. I was trying to say that with the rhetoric and actions of the Republican party at this time provided an open platform for those who have tried to suppress their hatred speeches and actions to feel free to do so without consequences. There are so many congressmen expressing things that I am a person with my mouth wide open.

  3. Mary says:

    Good review and reflections, Lynda. It does seem that in certain times in history the people have risen up and demanded freedom.
    The 80’s were an exceptional time. It was so thrilling to me to see because quite frankly I was pessimistic about government’s control of people. I didn’t think the Berlin wall would come down or apartheid would end in So. Africa.
    Of course, ‘apartheid’ was made illegal, but people go on doing hateful and divisive things. Until Jesus comes, we can each do our part to end injustice in our corners of the world.

  4. Stu Cocanougher says:

    Both MLK and Mandela were multi-faceted men who are led with bravery. Yet, I wonder if Mandela was more like Malcolm X than MLK? Especially before his imprisonment. I found this interesting..

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